Manet's refusal to conform to convention and his initiation of a new freedom from traditional subjects and modes of representation is considered as the departure point for Modern Art. The modernist reinvention of pictorial space had begun.
The rejection was occasioned not so much by the female nudes in Manet's painting, a classical subject, as by their presence in a modern setting, accompanied by clothed, bourgeois men. The incongruity suggested that the women were not goddesses but models, or possibly prostitutes.
Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte (Un dimanche après-midi à l’Ile de la Grande Jatte), Georges Seurat, 1884-1886
Coined by Duchamp, the term "readymade" came to designate mass-produced everyday objects taken out of their usual context and promoted to the status of artworks by the mere choice of the artist. A performative act as much as a stylistic category, the readymade had far-reaching implications for what can legitimately be considered an object of art.
Duchamp rejected purely visual or what he dubbed "retinal pleasure," deeming it to be facile, in favor of more intellectual, concept-driven approaches to art-making and, for that matter, viewing.
A taste for jokes, tongue-in-cheek wit and subversive humor, rife with sexual innuendoes, characterizes Duchamp's work and makes for much of its enjoyment. He fashioned puns out of everyday expressions which he conveyed through visual means. The linguistic dimension of his work in particular paved the way for Conceptual art.
"Whether Mr Mutt with his own hands made the fountain or not has no importance. He CHOSE it. He took an ordinary article of life, placed it so that its useful significance disappeared under the new title and point of view – created a new thought for that object."
Jean-Michel Basquiat emerged from the "Punk" scene in New York as a gritty, street-smart graffiti artist who successfully crossed over from his "downtown" origins to the international art gallery circuit. In a few fast-paced years, Basquiat swiftly rose to become one of the most celebrated, and possibly most commercially exploited American "naif" painters of the widely celebrated Neo-Expressionism art movement.
This work predicted to sell for $60m at upcoming Sotheby's sale.
Sherman's photographic portraiture forces the audience to reconsider common stereotypes and cultural assumptions, among the latter political satire, caricature, the graphic novel, pulp fiction, stand-up comedy (some of her characters are indeed uncomfortably "funny"), and other socially critical disciplines.
Selling for around $4m each, one of the first commercially successful artists.
Jeff Koons, Balloon dog
Does Koons critique or question our society the way substantial artists have? Or does he just amp up its worst qualities and sell it back to us?
Patrick Cariou v Richard Prince
Artist Cariou was paid $8,000 for his book.
Prince can earn $1m for a print.
Richard Prince, New Portraits
Ink jet prints of young girls' selfies with his captions, selling at Gagosian.
Not only were Prince’s unwilling subjects unhappy that their images had been stolen, they were angry that he had sold the prints for a whopping $90,000. Student Anna Collins told Business Insider: “I’m extremely broke, and here is a middle-aged white man making a huge profit off of my image. Kind of makes me sick.”
Some, however, were happy for the exposure, with Karley Sciortino calling it “an honor” to have been included. Selena Mooney, otherwise known as SuicideGirls’ co-founder Missy Suicide, went so far as to play Prince at his own game, selling her own version of his re-photograph for $90 with all proceeds going to a digital rights company; a move Prince called “smart”.
The street artist Shepard Fairey has designed a series of posters in designed to protest President-elect Donald Trump, who will be inaugurated as President of the United States later today.
Taking its name from the first line of the US constitution, the series We the People features portraits of Native Americans, African Americans, Muslims, and Latinas depicted in Fairey’s trademark style, with slogans such as “Women are Perfect” and “Defend Dignity.”
Banksy is an anonymous England-based graffiti artist, political activist and film director of unverified identity. Their satirical street art and subversive epigrams combine dark humour with graffiti executed in a distinctive stenciling technique. Banksy's works of political and social commentary have been featured on streets, walls, and bridges of cities throughout the world. Banksy's work grew out of the Bristol underground scene, which involved collaborations between artists and musicians. Banksy says that they were inspired by 3D, a graffiti artist who later became a founding member of the English musical group Massive Attack.
Banksy displays their art on publicly visible surfaces such as walls and self-built physical prop pieces. Banksy does not sell photographs or reproductions of their street graffiti, but art auctioneers have been known to attempt to sell the street art on location and leave the problem of its removal in the hands of the winning bidder.
JR (born 22 February 1983) is the pseudonym of a French photographer and artist whose identity is unconfirmed. Describing himself as a photograffeur, he flyposts large black-and-white photographic images in public locations, in a manner similar to the appropriation of the built environment by the graffiti artist. He states that the street is "the largest art gallery in the world". He started out on the streets of Paris. JR's work "often challenges widely held preconceptions and the reductive images propagated by advertising and the media."
The 2011 TED Prize winner, JR is characterized by TED as creating “pervasive art that spreads uninvited on buildings of Paris slums, on the walls in the Middle East, on broken bridges in Africa or in favelas of Brazil.” The pasting phase has become a communal artistic process occurring in each exhibiting city, as he invites children and adults alike to become artists for a day.
With a camera, a dedicated wheatpasting crew and the help of whole villages and favelas, 2011 TEDPrize winner JR shows the world its true face. Working anonymously, pasting his giant images on buildings, trains, bridges, the often-guerrilla artist JR forces us to see each other.